• 古钱币是如何铸造的?
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中国古钱币不仅品种丰富,而且铸造方法每个时代都不一样,根据《天工开物》记载的铸钱流程,来详细介绍古代各色古钱币是如何铸造出来的。
Chinese ancient coins are not only rich in variety but also different in casting methods. According to the casting process of "Tiangong Kai Wu", we introduce the ancient coins in ancient times.
  1炼铜
1 copper
从我国考古发掘来看,夏代已经能熔铸青铜。古代炼铜方法主要有火法和湿法两种。
From China's archaeological excavations, the Xia Dynasty has been able to cast bronze. There are two main types of fire and wet ancient copper smelting method.
 
第一种为“火法炼铜”,例如以孔雀石为原料炼铜。殷墟考古发现,3000多年前我国古代劳动人民已运用了此方法。孔雀石与点燃的木炭接触而被分解为氧化铜,继而被还原为金属铜;
The first one is the "copper smelting", such as malachite copper as raw material. The Yin Ruins archaeological discoveries, 3000 years ago, the working people in ancient China have been using this method. The malachite is exposed to the charcoal of light and is decomposed into copper oxide, which is then reduced to metal copper.
 
第二种为“湿法炼铜”,中国人最早利用天然铜的化合物进行湿法炼铜,西汉时即利用硫酸与氧化铜反应,将铜矿中的铜元素转变成可溶性的硫酸铜,再将铁放入硫酸铜溶液中把铜置换出来,这种方法叫湿法炼铜。
Second "wet copper", Chinese the earliest use of natural compounds of copper hydrometallurgy, the Western Han Dynasty by reaction of sulfuric acid and copper oxide, copper element in copper into soluble copper sulfate, then add iron copper sulfate solution to copper replacement, this method is called hydrometallurgy.
古人在提炼及使用红铜(纯铜)工具过程中,发现将红铜与锡、铅等金属熔融在一起,就能克服纯铜溶液粘稠、流动性差、质地不如石器坚硬的缺点,炼制出一种青灰色的合金,这就是青铜。青铜有熔点低,易于铸造,硬度大,融化后流动性好,少气泡等优点,适于铸造锋利的刀刃和细密的纹饰,因而我国古代的货币大都是使用青铜材质。
The ancients in the extraction and use of copper (copper) tool process, found that copper and tin and lead metal melt together, can overcome the copper solution viscosity, poor flowability and texture than hard faults stone, refining a alloy grey, it is the bronze. Bronze has many advantages such as low melting point, easy casting, high hardness, good fluidity and less air bubbles after melting. It is suitable for casting sharp edges and fine patterns. Therefore, most of the currencies in ancient China were made of bronze material.
在冶炼青铜的过程中,我国古代劳动人民还逐步发现了铜与锡、铜与铅、铜与锌的配比的改变,使炼制出来的青铜的属性发生变化的规律:加进的锡越多,熔点越低,随着加锡量的增多,硬度也随之增高,远远超过了红铜的硬度。但是当加锡过多时,青铜反而变脆,容易断裂。后来,人们又发现在青铜中加入定量的铅,就能克服青铜较脆的弱点。通过反复的实践,到春秋战国时期,古人已经总结出配制青铜合金的规律。
In the process of smelting bronze, the working people in ancient China also gradually discovered copper and tin, copper and lead, copper and zinc were changed, the bronze refining out of the property changes in the law: the more tin added, the lower the melting point, with increasing tin content, the hardness is higher. That is far more than the hardness of copper. But when the addition of tin is too much, the bronze becomes brittle and easy to break. Later, it was found that adding quantitative lead in bronze could overcome the weakness of the bronze. Through repeated practice, in the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, the ancients have summed up the rules of the preparation of bronze alloys.
根据对古钱币的考证,在汉代开始至明代初期的少量铸钱中含有通过矿石夹带的锌元素。由于纯铜加锌铸造的黄铜具有良好的铸造性能,颜色华贵,明代嘉靖年即启用金属锌直接配红铜铸造钱币。这在铜合金铸造史上是个划时代的转变。从此,黄橙橙的铜钱广受欢迎。
According to the textual research of the ancient coins, the small amount of money from the Han Dynasty to the early Ming Dynasty contains the zinc element through the ore entrainment. Because the copper plus zinc casting brass has good casting properties, color 2290, Ming Jiajing years enable metal zinc copper coins with direct. This is an epoch-making transition in the history of copper alloy casting. Since then, yellow coins popular.