• 于唐代翻砂铸钱工艺的探讨
  • 本站编辑:大发国际\大发国际开户\大发国际注册发布日期:2017-12-07 10:41 浏览次数:
从同版开元通宝制钱母子两品看唐朝的翻砂铸钱工艺
Look at the process of the Tang Dynasty foundry casting money from the same version of Kaiyuan reign coins and two products
 
郭喜林
Guoxilin
 
公元621年,唐高祖李渊实行币制改革,铸行开元通宝钱,废除了“铢两钱制”,开创了“宝钱制”的新时代。这是中国货币史上的一次重大飞跃,对于中国货币文化的发展产生了深远影响。
In the year 621, the Tang emperor Li Yuan currency reform, cast kaiyuantongbao money, the abolition of the "two baht money", creating a "new era of money". This is a major leap in the history of Chinese currency, which has had a profound influence on the development of Chinese monetary culture.
 
开元通宝钱不仅历史地位重要,而且铸造工艺也很考究。其形制严谨,钱文端庄,做工精致,版别多样。如此令泉家喜爱的钱币是怎么铸造出来的?对此,泉界、学术界一直在研究探讨。
Kaiyuantongbao money not only an important historical position, and the casting process is also very elegant. The strict form of money, the elegant, exquisite workmanship, various types of. How are the coins that the spring family's favorite coins have been cast out? In this regard, the spring and academic circles have been studying and discussing.
 
大唐采用范铸法、失蜡法铸钱早有定论,大发国际\大发国际开户\大发国际注册:而对于是否采用以母钱为模具翻砂铸钱即翻砂法则观点不一:
The van Zhufa, Datang lost wax casting money has long been, and whether the use of mother money for Mould Foundry is not a money foundry view:
 
一种观点认为,大唐没有采用翻砂法铸钱。《中国历代古钱图解与价格指导》一书这样写到:“隋唐之际,除了采用传统的泥范工艺外,还将商周时代创造的失蜡法用于铸钱。”並作出这样断定:“我国的翻砂工艺技术,早在春秋中期就有了。用于铸钱,则始于北宋。”
A view that the foundry cast Datang no money. "China ages old coins diagram and price guide" Book wrote: "the Sui and Tang Dynasties, in addition to the traditional technology of mud, will also create the Zhou Dynasty and the lost wax method for casting money." And make that concluded: "the foundry technology of our country, as early as in the mid spring and autumn have. For money, it began in the Northern Song Dynasty. "
 
另一种观点认为,大唐采用了翻砂法铸钱。有泉家曾撰文用移范和畸形现象论证唐代采用翻砂法铸钱的观点。下面,笔者试图用同版开元通宝小平母子两品正规制钱(即图1钱、图2钱)来佐证大唐采用了翻砂铸钱工艺。
Another view is that the foundry cast money datang. Stephen wrote home cast money shift fan and abnormal phenomenon in Tang Dynasty by foundry method viewpoint argument. Below, the author tries to use the same version of Kaiyuan reign Xiaoping mother of two products (i.e. regular cash money, money figure 1 Figure 2) to support the foundry technology of Datang money.
  先看这两枚开元钱的共同点:
Look at the common point of the two Kaiyuan.
 
一是两品均为八分书中字容弱,“开”字门内为“升井”,“元”字第一稍长,通字走之部为“三撇”,“宝”字贝部内两横稍短且居中。
The first is that two products are all eight points. The words in the book are weak. The word "Kai" is called "Shengjing", and the word "Yuan" is the first. It is "three pass", and the word "Bao" is two shorter and middle.
 
二是两品穿口、内郭、外缘状态相同。三是两品背纹饰均为左下角月。这三个共同点表明,两品钱文书法风格相同,形制相同,版式相同,具体为中字容弱左下角月版,是唐中期的正规制钱。
The two is the two products with the same wear, inner and outer edges. Three is the back of the lower left corner of the two products. The three common points show that two money calligraphy the same style, same shape, same as in word format, the specific content of weak left corner month version, the Mid Tang is regular money.
 
两品虽然是同一版式,但也有明显的不同:
Although the two products are the same format, there are also obvious differences.
 
一是材质不同。图1钱为传世品,白铜质,含锡12.5%。这样一个铜锡元素配比,铜质精良,铜液流动性好,钱文的各个细节都能铸到位且饱满。这说明图1钱具备了母钱的物质要素。图2钱生坑品,铜质为普通的青铜,看上去显得粗糙一点儿。
One is that the material is different. Figure 1 money is a passing product, white copper, containing 12.5% tin. Such a copper and tin element ratio, good copper, good liquid copper fluid, the details of the Qian Wen can be cast in place and full. This shows that figure 1 money has the material elements of the mother's money. Figure 2 Qian Sheng pits, copper as a common bronze, looks a bit rough.
 
二是规格不同。图1钱直径25.45毫米,厚1.56毫米,重4.7克,分别比图2钱直径长0.52毫米,厚0.29毫米,重1克。这些差距正是上下代之间的正常差异。这个差异是铸钱过程中铜液冷缩形成的。
The two is the different specifications. Figure 1. 25.45 mm diameter, 1.56 mm thick, weighs 4.7 grams, respectively in Figure 2 money diameter 0.52 mm long, 0.29 mm thick, weighs 1 grams. These gaps are the normal differences between the next generation and the next. This difference is formed by cold contraction of copper liquid in the process of casting money.
 
三是精度不同。图1钱做工精细,钱文精美,字口深峻,转角清晰,地张干净,轮郭精整。图2钱在这些方面明显逊色,特别是字口变浅,笔画出现粘连。相比之下,图1钱的精工细做,说明它具备了母钱的人文要素。
The three is the difference of precision. Figure 1 money is fine, the money is exquisite, the word mouth is deep, the corner is clear, the ground is clean, and the wheel is fine.  Figure 2 the money in these aspects is obviously inferior, especially the word mouth becomes shallow, and the strokes appear adhesion. In contrast, the fine work of Figure 1 money shows that it has the humanistic elements of the mother's money.
 
四是痕迹不同。图1钱穿口精修,外轮打磨呈直边,边轮底口可见雕母留下的走刀痕迹。这些正是雕母的下一代即母钱的特殊标志。而图2钱没有这些痕迹,表明其就是普通的流通行用钱。这四个不同点充分表明:两品是既有本质联系又有品质区别,一脉相承,辈分不同。图1钱是母钱,图2钱是子钱。图2钱是由图1那批母钱做模翻砂铸造而成的。
The four is the different traces. Figure 1 money wear finishing, outer grinding is a straight edge, round edge at the bottom left Diaomu visible cut mark. These are the next generation of Diaomu namely the base money of special signs. And Figure 2 money does not have these traces, indicating that it is the ordinary flow of money. These four different points: two indicates that the product is both the essence connection and quality difference, strain, different generations. Figure 1 is the parent of money money money money Shizi figure 2. Figure 2 is the money from Figure 1 that batch mastercoin mold foundry casting a.
 
有泉友可能要问,两品是不是范铸或失蜡法铸造?回答是否定的。因为范铸或失蜡法铸造的同一版式的钱币,正常情况下铜质、规格、精度基本一致,不会有明显差异。
A Quanyou may ask, two is not casting or wax lost casting?  The answer is negative. Because of the same type of coin cast by the casting or dewaxing method, the copper, specifications and precision in normal conditions are basically consistent, and there will be no obvious difference.
 
笔者查阅了《中国钱币大辞典@唐五代十国编》中所载的陝西、湖北等地出土的早期范铸、失蜡法铸造的开元通宝小平钱的相关资料,得知这些短首元、三撇通版式的开元小平钱尺寸和精美程度基本一致,没有大的差异。
The author reviewed "unearthed relevant information contained in China dictionary coins of Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties ten @ Bian" in Shaanxi, Hubei and other places of the early casting lost wax casting method of the Kaiyuan reign of Xiaoping the money, that the first three yuan, skimming through short format Kaiyuan Xiaoping money size and exquisite degree consistent. There is no big difference.
 
有泉友可能还要问,两品是不是大样与正样的关系?回答同样是否定的。因为大样与正样是同币种、同形制钱币的不同版式。有关资料表明,大样直径较正样直径大出1一一2毫米。由此可见,图1钱与图2钱不是大样与正样的兄弟关系,而是母子关系。
A Quanyou may also ask, two is not large and is like? The answer is also negative. Because it is different and bulk samples with the same shape, layout of currency coins.  Relevant data shows that the sample diameter is like large diameter 1 - 2 mm. Thus, in Figure 1 and Figure 2 money money is not large and is like the relationship between the brothers, but the relationship between mother and child.
 
综上,笔者认为可以作出这样定论:同版开元通宝母子两品的重要价值在于,以正规制钱的实物形式证明了唐朝中期采用了与货币需要量相适应的翻砂铸钱工艺,呈现了由范铸法、失蜡法向翻砂法过渡的创新局面。
In summary, I think we can make such a conclusion: the important value of the same version of Kaiyuan reign is the mother of two products, in kind of formal money proved by the middle of the Tang Dynasty and the quantity of money needed to adapt to the foundry process of money, showing the transition from van Zhufa, lost wax foundry method to the new situation.